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قديم 05-20-2012, 05:20 PM
  #1 (permalink)

 
تاريخ التسجيل: Mar 2009
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افتراضي San Diego سان دييغو، كاليفورنيا

San Diego سان دييغو، كاليفورنيا





سان دييغو (بالإنكليزية: San Diego)هي مدينة ساحلية تقع في جنوب ولاية كاليفورنيا، الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية. في عام 2005 بلغ عدد سكانها 1305736 نسمة. مساحتها 963.6 كم2. تدعى ايضاً (America's finest city) بسبب طبيعة جوها الجميلة و المناخ الربيعي الدائم معظم ايام السنة و تعتبر سان دييغو ثاني أكبر مدينة في كاليفورنيا، وتاسع أكبر مدن الولايات المتحدة. تشتهر بمناخها المعتدل وبالشواطئ العديدة وكذلك بجسر البارون الذي يربط نصفي المدينة. أنشأها مستعمرون إسبان أطلقوا هذا الاسم عليها. تقع على حدود المكسيك ولذلك كانت ستنضم إداريا إلى المكسيك.
وقد كانت مأهولة بالسكان في منطقة سان دييغو لأكثر من 10,000 سنة قبل الشعب Kumeyaay.(كوميونيتى) و سان دييغو هي أول مقاطعة زارها الاوربيون في الساحل الغربي للولايات المتحدة الأمريكية عندما رسى خوان كأبريللو على ساحل سانديغو سنة 1542 واعلنها تابعة لإسبانياوفي سنة 1821 أصبحت سان دييغو تابعة للمكسيك بعد استقلال المكسيك عن إسبانيا. بعد الحرب الأمريكية ضد المكسيك ضمت الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية مقاطعة سان دييغو إليها سنة 1850 وأصبحت رسميا جزءا من الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية وولاية كاليفورنيا.
اكبر حديقة حيوانات بالعالم و عالم البحار
أحد أكبر فنادق العالم وملعب بيتكو بارك بيسبول لفريق سان دييغو بادريس
ملعب كرة القدم الأمريكية لفريق سان دييغو تشارجرز واسمه ملعب كوالكم
أيضا مركز المقرات الأكبر (كونفينشن سنتر) في ولاية كاليفورنيا
تعتبر سان دييغو الآن من المدن المظيفة لقواعد البحرية الأمريكية وذلك منذ 1901 ومنذ ذلك الوقت تستضيف سان دييغو واحدة من أكبر قواعد البحرية الأمريكية حيث تبنى السفن البحرية الجديدة.
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يستعمل 80% من السكان على السيارات الخاصة وسان دييغو تحتوي على عديد من الطرق السريعة داخل الولاية وأخرى إلى الولايات المجاورة.
الترولي: (القطار الكهربائي) (trolley) الذي يمر من نركز المدينة والجزء الشرقي والجنوبي من المقاطعة.
الباصات: تغطي جميع المدن في المقاطعة.
مطار سان دييغو: ويدعى (Lindbergh Field Airport) وهو المطار الرئيسي للمقاطعة هو دولي ومحلي أيضا
و مدرجه هو الاكثر ازدحاما في الولايات المتحدة المتحدة
استخدمه 17 مليون مسافر سنة 2005. الآن يتم عملية إصلاحات وتكبير للمدرج الثاني وستنتهي التصليحات سنة 2013
تتألف مقاطعة سان دييغو من 18 مدينة
1-سان دييغو، 2- كارلسباد، 3-جولا فيستا، 4-كورونادو، 5- ديل مار، 6- ايلكاهون، 7- اينسينيتاس، 8- ايسكونديدو، 9- ايمبيريال بيج، 10- لاميسا، 11-ليمونغروف، 12- ناشيونال ستي، 13- اوشن سايد، 14-باواي، 15- سان ماركوس، 16-سانتي، 17-سالونا بيج، 18-فيستا
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رد مع اقتباس
قديم 05-20-2012, 05:33 PM
  #2 (permalink)

 
تاريخ التسجيل: Mar 2009
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افتراضي رد: San Diego سان دييغو، كاليفورنيا

San Diego
This article is about the city in California. For the metropolitan area, see San Diego metropolitan area. For other uses, see San Diego (disambiguation).

San Diego /ˌsæn diːˈeɪɡoʊ/ is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest city in California. The city is located on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, immediately adjacent to the Mexican border. The birthplace of California,[2] San Diego is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the U.S. Navy, and recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology enclave. The population was 1,301,617 at the 2010 census.[3]
Historically home to the Kumeyaay people, San Diego was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Cabrillo claimed the entire area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later. The Presidio and Mission of San Diego, founded in 1769, were the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of newly independent Mexico, and in 1850, became part of the United States following the Mexican-American War and the admission of California to the union.
The city is the county seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos metropolitan area as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, and manufacturing. The presence of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology.

The area of San Diego has been inhabited for more than 10,000 years by the Kumeyaay people.[4] The first European to visit the region was Portuguese-born explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sailing under the flag of Castile. Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542 and named the site 'San Miguel'.[5] In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more commonly known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego.[6]
In May 1769, Gaspar de Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Father Junípero Serra.[7] By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper.[8] Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks.[9][10]
In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, and San Diego became part of the Mexican state of Alta California. The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government, and most of the Mission lands were distributed to wealthy Californio settlers.
As a result of the Mexican-American War of 1846–1848, the territory of Alta California, including San Diego, was ceded to the United States by Mexico. The Battle of San Pasqual, a battle of the Mexican-American War, was fought in 1846 in the San Pasqual Valley which is now part of the city of San Diego. The state of California was admitted to the United States in 1850. That same year San Diego was designated the seat of the newly established San Diego County and was incorporated as a city. The initial city charter was established in 1889 and today's city charter was adopted in 1931.[11]
The original town of San Diego was located at the foot of Presidio Hill, in the area which is now Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. The ******** was not ideal, being several miles away from navigable water. In the late 1860s, Alonzo Horton promoted a move to "New Town", several miles south of the original settlement, in the area which became Downtown San Diego. People and businesses flocked to New Town because of its ******** on San Diego Bay convenient to shipping. New Town quickly eclipsed the original settlement, known to this day as Old Town, and became the economic and governmental heart of the city.[12]
In the early part of the 20th century, San Diego hosted two World's Fairs: the Panama-California Exposition in 1915 and the California Pacific International Exposition in 1935. Both expositions were held in Balboa Park, and many of the Spanish/Baroque-style buildings that were built for those expositions remain to this day as central features of the park. The buildings were intended to be temporary structures, but most remained in continuous use until they progressively fell into disrepair. Most were eventually rebuilt, using castings of the original facades to retain the architectural style.[13] The menagerie of exotic animals featured at the 1915 exposition provided the basis for the San Diego Zoo.[14]


Balboa Park on the cover of a guidebook for the World Exposition of 1915
Significant U.S. Navy presence began in 1901 with the establishment of the Navy Coaling Station in Point Loma, and expanded greatly during the 1920s.[15] By 1930 the city was host to Naval Base San Diego, Naval Training Center San Diego, San Diego Naval Hospital, Camp Matthews, and Camp Kearny (now Marine Corps Air Station
Miramar). The city was also an early center for aviation: as early as World War I San Diego was proclaiming itself "The Air Capital of the West."[16] The city was home to important airplane developers and manufacturers like Ryan Airlines (later Ryan Aeronautical), founded in 1925, and Consolidated Aircraft (later Convair), founded in 1923. Charles A. Lindbergh's plane The Spirit of St. Louis was built in San Diego in 1927 by Ryan Airlines.[16]
During World War II, San Diego became a major hub of military and defense activity, due to the presence of so many military installations and defense manufacturers. The city's population grew rapidly during and after World War II, more than doubling between 1930 (147,995) and 1950 (333,865).[17] After World War II, the military continued to play a major role in the local economy, but post-Cold War cutbacks took a heavy toll on the local defense and aerospace industries. The resulting downturn led San Diego leaders to seek to diversify the city's economy by focusing on research and science, as well as tourism.[18]
Downtown San Diego was in decline in the 1960s and 1970s but experienced some urban renewal since the early 1980s, including the opening of Horton Plaza, the revival of the Gaslamp Quarter, and the construction of the San Diego Convention Center; Petco Park opened in 2004.[19]

The city of San Diego lies on deep canyons and hills separating its mesas, creating small pockets of natural parkland scattered throughout the city and giving it a hilly geography. Traditionally, San Diegans have built their homes and businesses on the mesas, while leaving the canyons relatively wild.[20] Thus, the canyons give parts of the city a segmented feel, creating gaps between otherwise proximate neighborhoods and contributing to a low-density, car-centered environment. The San Diego River runs through the middle of San Diego from east to west, creating a river valley which serves to divide the city into northern and southern segments. Several reservoirs and Mission Trails Regional Park also lie between and separate developed areas of the city.
Notable peaks within the city limits include Cowles Mountain, the highest point in the city at 1,593 feet (486 m); Black Mountain at 1,558 feet (475 m); and Mount Soledad at 824 feet (251 m). The Cuyamaca Mountains and Laguna Mountains rise to the east of the city, and beyond the mountains are desert areas. The Cleveland National Forest is a half-hour drive from downtown San Diego. Numerous farms are found in the valleys northeast and southeast of the city.

Main article: List of communities and neighborhoods of San Diego
The city of San Diego recognizes 52 individual areas as Community Planning Areas.[21] Within a given planning area there may be several distinct neighborhoods. Altogether the city contains more than 100 identified neighborhoods.[22]
Downtown San Diego is located on San Diego Bay. Balboa Park encompasses several mesas and canyons to the northeast, surrounded by older, dense urban communities including Hillcrest and North Park. To the east and southeast lie City Heights, the College Area, and Southeast San Diego. To the north lies Mission Valley and Interstate 8. The communities north of the valley and freeway, and south of Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, include Clairemont, Kearny Mesa, Tierrasanta, and Navajo. Stretching north from Miramar are the northern suburbs of Mira Mesa, Scripps Ranch, Rancho Peñasquitos, and Rancho Bernardo. The far northeast portion of the city encompasses Lake Hodges and the San Pasqual Valley, which holds an agricultural preserve. Carmel Valley and Del Mar Heights occupy the northwest corner of the city. To their south are Torrey Pines State Reserve and the business center of the Golden Triangle. Further south are the beach and coastal communities of La Jolla, Pacific Beach, and Ocean Beach. Point Loma occupies the peninsula across San Diego Bay from downtown. The communities of South San Diego, such as San Ysidro and Otay Mesa, are located next to the Mexico – United States border, and are physically separated from the rest of the city by the cities of National City and Chula Vista. A narrow strip of land at the bottom of San Diego Bay connects these southern neighborhoods with the rest of the city.
For the most part, San Diego neighborhood boundaries tend to be understood by its residents based on geographical boundaries like canyons and street patterns.[23] The city recognized the importance of its neighborhoods when it organized its 2008 General Plan around the concept of a "City of Villages".[24]
Cityscape
Main article: List of tallest buildings in San Diego
San Diego was originally centered in the Old Town district, but by the late 1860s the center of focus had relocated to the bayfront in the belief that this new ******** would increase trade. As the "New Town" – present-day Downtown – waterfront ******** quickly developed, it eclipsed Old Town as the center of San Diego.[25]
The development of skyscrapers over 300 feet (91 m) in San Diego is attributed to the construction of the El Cortez Apartment Hotel in 1927, the tallest building in the city from 1927 to 1963.[26] As time went on multiple buildings claimed the title of San Diego's tallest skyscraper, including the Union Bank of California Building and Symphony Towers. Currently the tallest building in San Diego is One America Plaza, standing 500 feet (150 m) tall, which was completed in 1991.[27] The downtown skyline contains no super-talls, as a regulation put in place by the Federal Aviation Administration in the 1970s set a 500 feet (152 m) limit on the height of buildings due to the proximity of San Diego International Airport.[28] An iconic description of the skyline includes its skyscrapers being compared to the tools of a toolbox.[29]
San Diego is one of the top-ten best climates in the Farmer's Almanac[30] and is one of the two best summer climates in America as scored by The Weather Channel.[31] Under the Köppen climate classification system, the San Diego area straddles areas of Mediterranean climate (CSa) to the north and Semi-arid climate (BSh) to the south and east.[32] As a result, it is often described as "arid Mediterranean" and "Semi-arid Steppe". San Diego's climate is characterized by warm, dry summers and mild winters with most of the annual precipitation falling between December and March. The city has mild, mostly dry weather, with an average of 201 days above 70 °F (21 °C) and low rainfall (9–13 inches [23–33 cm] annually).
The climate in the San Diego area, like much of California, often varies significantly over short geographical distances resulting in microclimates. In San Diego's case this is mainly due to the city's topography (the Bay, and the numerous hills, mountains, and canyons). Frequently, particularly during the "May gray/June gloom" period, a thick "marine layer" cloud cover will keep the air cool and damp within a few miles of the coast, but will yield to bright cloudless sunshine approximately 5–10 miles (8.0–16 km) inland.[33] Sometimes the June gloom can last into July, causing cloudy skies over most of San Diego for the entire day.[34][35] Even in the absence of June gloom, inland areas tend to experience much more significant temperature variations than coastal areas, where the ocean serves as a moderating influence. Thus, for example, downtown San Diego averages January lows of 50 °F (10 °C) and August highs of 78 °F (26 °C). The city of El Cajon, just 10 miles (16 km) inland from downtown San Diego, averages January lows of 42 °F (6 °C) and August highs of 88 °F (31 °C).
A sign of global warming, scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography say the average surface temperature of the water at Scripps Pier in the California Current has increased by almost 3 degrees since 1950.[36]
Rainfall along the coast averages about 10 inches (250 mm) of precipitation annually. The average (mean) rainfall is 10.65 inches (271 mm) and the median is 9.6 inches (240 mm).[37] Most of the rainfall occurs during the cooler months. The months of December through March supply most of the rain, with February the only month averaging 2 inches (51 mm) or more of rain. The months of May through September tend to be almost completely dry. Though there are few wet days per month during the rainy period, rainfall can be heavy when it does fall. Rainfall is usually greater in the higher elevations of San Diego; some of the higher elevation areas of San Diego can receive 11–15 inches (280–380 mm) of rain a year.
Snow in the city is so rare that it has been observed only five times in the century-and-a-half that records have been kept. In 1949 and 1967, snow stayed on the ground for a few hours in higher ********s like Point Loma and La Jolla. The other three occasions, in 1882, 1946, and 1987, involved flurries but no accumulation.[38]
Official temperature record-keeping began in San Diego in 1872,[39] although other weather records go back further. The city's first official weather station was at Mission San Diego from 1849 to 1858. From August 1858 until 1940, the official weather station was at a series of downtown buildings, and the station has been at Lindbergh Field since February 1940.[40]
Like most of southern California, the majority of San Diego's current area was originally occupied by chaparral, a plant community made up mostly of drought-resistant shrubs. The endangered Torrey Pine has the bulk of its population in San Diego in a stretch of protected chaparral along the coast. The steep and varied topography and proximity to the ocean create a number of different habitats within the city limits, including tidal marsh and canyons. The chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in low elevations along the coast are prone to wildfire, and the rates of fire have increased in the 20th century, due primarily to fires ting near the borders of urban and wild areas.[42]
San Diego's broad city limits encompass a number of large nature preserves, including Torrey Pines State Reserve, Los Peñasquitos Canyon Preserve, and Mission Trails Regional Park. Torrey Pines State Reserve and a coastal strip continuing to the north constitute the only ******** where the rare species of Torrey Pine, P. torreyana torreyana, is found.[43]
Due to the steep topography that prevents or discourages building, along with some efforts for preservation, there are also a large number of canyons within the city limits that serve as nature preserves, including Switzer Canyon, Tecolote Canyon Natural Park,[44] and Marian Bear Memorial Park in the San Clemente Canyon,[45] as well as a number of small parks and preserves.
San Diego County has one of the highest counts of animal and plant species that appear on the endangered species list among counties in the United States.[46] Because of its diversity of habitat and its position on the Pacific Flyway, San Diego County has recorded the presence of 492 bird species, more than any other region in the country.[47] San Diego always scores very high in the number of bird species observed in the annual Christmas Bird Count, sponsored by the Audubon Society, and it is known as one of the "birdiest" areas in the United States.[48][49]
San Diego and its backcountry are subject to periodic wildfires. In October 2003, San Diego was the site of the Cedar Fire, which has been called the largest wildfire in California over the past century.[50] The fire burned 280,000 acres (1,100 km2), killed 15 people, and destroyed more than 2,200 homes.[51] In addition to damage caused by the fire, smoke resulted in a significant increase in emergency room visits due to asthma, respiratory problems, eye irritation, and smoke inhalation; the poor air quality caused San Diego County schools to close for a week.[52] Wildfires four years later destroyed some areas, particularly within the communities of Rancho Bernardo, Rancho Santa Fe, and Ramona.[53]

The city had a population of 1,307,402 in 2010, according to the census that year, on a land area of 372.1 square miles (963.7 km2). The urban area of San Diego extends beyond the administrative city limits and had a total 2010 population of 2,880,000, making it the third-largest urban area in California.

As of the Census of 2010, there were 1,307,402 people living in the city of San Diego.[55] That represents a population increase of just under 7% from the 1,223,400 people, 450,691 households, and 271,315 families reported in 2000.[56] The estimated city population in 2009 was 1,306,300. The population density was 3,771.9 people per square mile (1,456.4/km2). The racial makeup of San Diego was 58.9% White, 6.7% African American, 0.6% Native American, 15.9% Asian (5.9% Filipino, 2.7% Chinese, 2.5% Vietnamese, 1.3% Indian, 1.0% Korean, 0.7% Japanese, 0.4% Laotian, 0.3% Cambodian, 0.1% Thai). 0.5% Pacific Islander, 12.3% from other races, and 5.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28.8%.[57][58] Among the Hispanic population, 24.9% are Mexican, and 0.6% are Puerto Rican.
As of January 1, 2008 estimates by the San Diego Association of Governments revealed that the household median income for San Diego rose to $66,715, up from $45,733, and that the city population rose to 1,336,865, up 9.3% from 2000.[59] The population was 45.3% non-Hispanic whites, down from 78.9% in 1970,[60] 27.7% Hispanics, 15.6% Asians/Pacific Islanders, 7.1% blacks, 0.4% American Indians, and 3.9% from other races. Median age of Hispanics was 27.5 years, compared to 35.1 years overall and 41.6 years among non-Hispanic whites; Hispanics were the largest group in all ages under 18, and non-Hispanic whites constituted 63.1% of population 55 and older.
In 2000 there were 451,126 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.8% were non-families. Households made up of individuals account for 28.0% and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.30.
The U.S. Census Bureau reported that in 2000, 24.0% of San Diego residents were under 18, and 10.5% were 65 and over.[61] The median age was 32; two-thirds of the population was under 35.[62] The San Diego County regional planning agency, SANDAG, provides tables and graphs breaking down the city population into 5-year age groups.[63] In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $45,733, and the median income for a family was $53,060.[64] Males had a median income of $36,984 versus $31,076 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,609.[64] According to Forbes in 2005, San Diego was the fifth wealthiest U.S. city[65] but about 10.6% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.[64] Nonetheless, San Diego was rated the fifth-best place to live in the United States in 2006 by Money magazine.[66]
Crime
According to Forbes magazine, San Diego was the ninth-safest city in the top 10 list of safest cities in the U.S. in 2010.[67] Like most major cities, San Diego had a declining crime rate from 1990 to 2000. Crime in San Diego increased in the early 2000s.[68][69][70] In 2004, San Diego had the sixth lowest crime rate of any U.S. city with over half a million residents.[70] From 2002 to 2006, the crime rate overall dropped 0.8%, though not evenly by category. While violent crime decreased 12.4% during this period, property crime increased 1.1%. Total property crimes per 100,000 people were lower than the national average in 2008.[71]
Economy
The economy of San Diego is influenced by its deepwater port, which includes the only major submarine and shipbuilding yards on the West Coast. Several major national defense contractors were ted and are headquartered in San Diego, including General Atomics, Cubic, and NASSCO.
San Diego hosts the largest naval fleet in the world:[74] it was in 2008 was home to 53 ships, over 120 tenant commands, and more than 35,000 sailors, soldiers, Department of Defense civilian employees and contractors.[75] About 5 percent of all civilian jobs in the county are military-related, and 15,000 businesses in San Diego County rely on Department of Defense contracts.[75]
Military bases in San Diego include US Navy facilities, Marine Corps bases, and Coast Guard stations. Marine Corps institutions in the city of San Diego include Marine Corps Air Station Miramar and Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego. The Navy has several institutions in the city, including Naval Base Point Loma, Naval Base San Diego (also known as the 32nd Street Naval Station), Bob Wilson Naval Hospital, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego and Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command. Also near San Diego but not within the city limits are Naval Amphibious Base Coronado and Naval Air Station North Island (which operates Naval Auxiliary Landing Facility San Clemente Island, Silver Strand Training Complex, and the Outlying Field Imperial Beach). San Diego is known as the "birthplace of naval aviation".[76]
The city is "home to the majority of the U.S. Pacific Fleet's surface combatants, all of the Navy's West Coast amphibious ships and a variety of Coast Guard and Military Sealift Command vessels".[75] One Nimitz class supercarrier, (the USS Carl Vinson),[77] five amphibious assault ships, several Los Angeles-class "fast attack" submarines, the Hospital Ship USNS Mercy, carrier and submarine tenders, destroyers, cruisers, frigates, and many smaller ships are home-ported there. Four Navy vessels have been named USS San Diego.[78]
Tourism
Tourism is a major industry owing to the city's climate, its beaches, and numerous tourist attractions such as Balboa Park, Belmont amusement park, San Diego Zoo, San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and SeaWorld San Diego. San Diego's Spanish and Mexican heritage is reflected in the many historic sites across the city, such as Mission San Diego de Alcala and Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. Annual events in San Diego include Comic-Con, the Farmers Insurance Open golf tournament, the San Diego Black Film Festival, and Street Scene Music Festival. Transient Occupancy Taxes (TOT) create funding for the City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture.[79]
San Diego County hosted more than 30 million visitors in 2009, of whom approximately half stayed overnight and half were day visitors; collectively they spent an estimated $15 billion locally.[80] The San Diego Convention Center hosted 68 out-of-town conventions and trade shows in 2009, attracting more than 600,000 visitors.[80]
San Diego's cruise ship industry used to be the second largest in California. Each cruise ship call injects an estimated $2 million (from the purchase of food, fuel, supplies, and maintenance services) into the local economy.[81] Numerous cruise lines, including Celebrity, Crystal and Princess, operate out of San Diego. However, cruise ship business has been in steady decline since peaking in 2008, when the Port hosted over 250 ship calls and more than 900,000 passengers. By 2011 the number of ship calls had fallen to 103 (estimated).[82] Holland America and Carnival Cruises had operated weekly cruises to the Mexican Riviera, but announced that they will no longer do so after April 2012, an economic loss to the region of more than $100 million.[82] The decline is blamed on the slumping economy as well as fear of travel to Mexico due to well-publicized violence there.[83]
There are local cruises available through companies such as Hornblower and H&M. These include sightseeing and "sunset" cruises as well as private-event or "party" cruises. Another whole facet is the whale watching cruises that are available during the migration of tens of thousands of gray whales that pass by San Diego, peaking in mid-January.[84]
International trade
San Diego's commercial port and its ******** on the United States-Mexico border make international trade an important factor in the city's economy. The city is authorized by the United States government to operate as a Foreign Trade Zone.[85]
The city shares a 15-mile (24 km) border with Mexico that includes two border crossings. San Diego hosts the busiest international border crossing in the world, in the San Ysidro neighborhood at the San Ysidro Port of Entry.[86] A second, primarily commercial border crossing operates in the Otay Mesa area; it is the largest commercial crossing on the California-Baja California border and handles the third highest volume of trucks and dollar value of trade among all United States-Mexico land crossings.[87]
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One of the Port of San Diego's two cargo facilities is located in Downtown San Diego at the Tenth Avenue Marine Terminal. This terminal has facilities for containers, bulk cargo, and refrigerated and frozen storage, so that it can handle the import and export of perishables (including 33 million bananas every month) as well as fertilizer, cement, forest products, and other commodities.[88] In 2009 the Port of San Diego handled 1,137,054 short tons of total trade; foreign trade accounted for 956,637 short tons while domestic trade amounted to 180,417 short tons.[89]
Manufacturing and research
In 2010, former Governor Schwarzenegger’s Office of Economic Development designated San Diego as an iHub Innovation Center for collaboration potentially between wireless and life sciences, citing the area's wireless business, pharmaceutical research and t-ups for medical devices and diagnostics.[90]
San Diego hosts several major producers of wireless cellular technology. Qualcomm was founded and is headquartered in San Diego, and still is the largest private-sector technology employer (excluding hospitals) in San Diego County.[91] Other wireless industry manufacturers headquartered here include Nokia, LG Electronics,[92] Kyocera International.,[93] Cricket Communications and Novatel Wireless.[94] According to the San Diego Business Journal, the largest software company in San Diego is security software company Websense Inc.[95] San Diego also has the U.S. headquarters for the Slovakian security company ESET.[96]
The presence of the University of California, San Diego and other research institutions has helped to fuel biotechnology growth.[97] In June 2004, San Diego was ranked the top biotech cluster in the United States by the Milken Institute.[98] There are more than 400 biotechnology companies in the area.[99] In particular, the La Jolla and nearby Sorrento Valley areas are home to offices and research facilities for numerous biotechnology companies.[100] Major biotechnology companies like Neurocrine Biosciences and Nventa Biopharmaceuticals are headquartered in San Diego, while many biotech and pharmaceutical companies, such as BD Biosciences, Biogen Idec, Integrated DNA Technologies, Merck, Pfizer, Élan, Celgene, and Vertex, have offices or research facilities in San Diego. There are also several non-profit biotech and health care institutes, such as the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, the Scripps Research Institute, the West Wireless Health Institute and the Sanford-Burnham Institute. San Diego is also home to more than 140 contract research organizations (CROs) that provide a variety of contract services for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.[101]
Real estate
Prior to 2006, San Diego experienced a dramatic growth of real estate prices, to the extent that the situation was sometimes described as a "housing affordability crisis". Median house prices more than tripled between 1998 and 2007. According to the California Association of Realtors, in May 2007, a median house in San Diego cost $612,370.[102] Growth of real estate prices has not been accompanied by comparable growth of household incomes: Housing Affordability Index (percentage of households that can afford to buy a median-priced house) fell below 20 percent in the early 2000s. The San Diego metropolitan area had the second worst median multiple (ratio of median house price to median household income) of all metropolitan areas in the United States. As a consequence, San Diego had experienced negative net migration since 2004, with a significant number of people moving to Riverside County, with many residents commuting daily from Temecula and Murrieta, to their jobs in San Diego. Many San Diego home buyers tend to buy homes within many affordable neighborhoods, while others are leaving the state altogether and moving to more affordable regions in the country.[103]
San Diego home prices peaked in 2005 then declined as part of a nationwide trend. As of December 2010, home prices were 60 percent higher than in 2000, but down 36 percent from the peak in 2005.[104] The median home price declined by more than $200,000 between 2005 and 2010, and sales dropped by 50 percent.[105]
Top employers
According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[106] the top employers in the city are:
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